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避免模具安排上的错误  发帖心情 Post By:2010/5/2 9:47:00 [只看该作者]


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Avoid Common Mold Set-Up Mistakes

By Dave Lamb and Brad Andrist
Donnelly Custom Manufacturing



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  发帖心情 Post By:2010/5/2 10:12:00 [只看该作者]

Every molding machine has to shut down periodically for a mold set-up. Unfortunately, machines are commonly out of action far longer than necessary due to avoidable mistakes in set-up procedures. A poorly planned or executed mold set-up can resemble a comedy of errors. When the machine is started up again, the result can be slow cycles, high scrap rates, tool damage, defective parts, rework, an unstable process, late delivery of product, and the loss of profit margin on the job.

 

每个注塑机都会周期性停机以进行模具安排。不幸的是,由于在模具安排程序上存在不可避免的错误,注塑机常常停置过长时间不用。模具安排的糟糕计划或行动就像一个错误的闹剧。当注塑机再次开启时,结果就是循环周期慢,废品率高,模具损伤,部件出现缺陷,返工,工艺不稳定,产品发货延迟,利润损失。


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  发帖心情 Post By:2010/5/2 10:23:00 [只看该作者]

Since it opened in 1984, Donnelly Custom Manufacturing has embraced the challenge of perfecting the mold changeover process rather than just accepting it as a necessary chore. Along the way, we have acquired some insight on avoiding common mistakes. Getting change-overs right is particularly important to our focus on short-run manufacturing. Our approach works: Mold- change times have been trimmed by 50% over the past two years, and we’re now able to complete many change­overs for smaller presses in less than 30 min and for our largest presses within 2 hr.

 

自从1984年开业以来,Donnelly Custom Manufacturing 公司在完善模具更换程序上接受挑战,而不是仅仅把它当成一件杂事。在这样的实践中,我们在避免常识性错误获得了一些认识。正确更换模具对于短周期制造特别重要。我们的工作成就是:在过去的二十年中,模具更换时间缩短了50%。我们现在可以完成许多模具更换,短的30分钟内搞定,最长的在2小时内搞定。


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  发帖心情 Post By:2010/5/2 10:34:00 [只看该作者]

Donnelly has 27 injection presses from 28 to 720 tons, executes an average of 30 (and as many as 55) mold changes a day, and usually performs from 190 to 210 set-ups weekly. Some production runs can be as short as 15 min, although a 10-hr run is the average. An extra 10 min on set-up can erase the profit on a run of less than 2 hr.

 

Donnelly公司有27个注塑工艺,吨位从28到720吨不等,每天要进行平均30个模具更换,每周通常要进行190到210个模具安排。一些生产周期要短至15分钟,尽管平均运行周期是10小时。在模具安排上多花10分钟相当于使一个小于2小时的注塑运行的利润被丢失。


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  发帖心情 Post By:2010/5/2 10:55:00 [只看该作者]

图片点击可在新窗口打开查看
Donnelly trimmed tool set-up time with two-member teams that work on both sides of the press simultaneously and with tool change carts that are prepared in advance with all the tools and parts needed for the changeover.

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  发帖心情 Post By:2010/5/2 11:08:00 [只看该作者]

TIP No. 1策略一
Avoid Unnecessary Idling避免不必要地浪费时间

At many molders, once the press completes its last cycle, it typically is shut down and sits idle while the changeover crew takes out the finished mold and puts it away, locates and retrieves the next mold, stages any required auxiliary equipment, and finally conducts the set-up.

 

在许多模塑商那里,一旦成型完成了它的最后一个循环,注塑机常常被关掉而闲置一边。同时,换模人员拿出用过的模具,把它丢弃一旁,再将下一个模具找到定位,拿出任何需要的附属设备,最后才进行模具安排。

 

We recommend pre-staging the next mold changeover while the press is still in production with the current mold. Use a set-up cart that contains all of the tools necessary to tear down and set up the mold. The cart should include torque wrenches, impact wrenches, mold clamps and bolts, nozzles, cleaners, and any other equipment required. A member of the crew should go over the set-up cart during the pre-staging effort to ensure it isn’t missing any essential items. Pre-staging helped Donnelly shave as much as 33% off the average changeover time.

 

我们建议,在注塑机还在使用当前模具生产时,就预演下一个模具更换。使用一种安排表,包括拆卸和安装模具的所有必须的工具。该图表包括扭矩扳手、套筒扳手、合模装置,以及螺栓、喷嘴、清洁工具和其它任何所需设备。换模人员应该在预演之前温习安排图表,以确保不遗漏任何项目。换模预演帮助Donnelly公司节省了平均33%的换模时间。

 

Scheduling and staging material in time is also critical. Many materials require pre-drying from 2 to 6 hr before processing. Failure to adequately schedule and pre-stage the material has the potential to idle a press much longer than the rest of the changeover activities combined.

 

及时规划和预演成型用原材料也是关键的。许多材料在加工前要求预干燥2-6小时。如果不能恰当规划和预演成型原材料,就有可能使注塑机的闲置时间比换模所用的总时间还长。

 

Prioritize the set-up crew’s activities: Concentrate on getting the new mold up and running first, not on putting the just-removed mold into storage. There’s time for that after the changeover is complete and production resumes.

 

模具安排人员的活动顺序是:先集中力量把新模具安装起来并优先运转起来,而不是马上把刚刚拆卸的模具放进收藏柜。等换模完成并开始生产后,我们还有时间来收藏模具。

 

 

[此贴子已经被作者于2010-5-2 14:22:36编辑过]

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  发帖心情 Post By:2010/5/2 14:46:00 [只看该作者]

TIP No. 2策略二
Organize Mold Storage组织模具收藏

A trouble spot for many molders is mold storage. They often waste time finding and retrieving molds. Part of the problem is inefficient ways of storing and inventorying molds. Another part of the problem is storing molds too far away from the press. To improve mold storage and retrieval, Donnelly built what we call mold grandstands. They resemble high-school bleachers (see photo) and are located adjacent to the press. Every mold is assigned a place on a specific rack, and each mold is numbered. The most frequently run molds are stored where they are easiest to reach. So, when a mold is needed, one of the crew performing the changeover needs only to walk across the aisle to retrieve the mold. An overhead crane is used to transport the molds. We have separate grandstands for small and medium-size molds, while the larger molds are stored on a vertical racking system near the large injection machines.

 

对于许多模塑商来说,模具收藏是个问题。他们往往浪费时间寻找和收回模具。部门问题是,收藏和库存模具采取了无效的方法。问题的另一部分是,收藏模具的地方离注塑机太远。为了改进模具收藏和回收,Donnelly建造了我们称之为模具大架子的东西。模具大架子就像高中的露天看台(见照片),放在注塑机附近。每个模具在特定的搁板上指定位置,并将每个模具编号。最常用的模具放在最容易拿到的地方。所以,当某个模具要用时,更换模具的人员只需走过走廊去取回模具。需要一个悬挂式起重机用于运输模具。我们拥有小型到中型的模具的独立大架子,而较大的模具则收藏在一个垂直大搁板系统上,并挨着大注塑机。


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  发帖心情 Post By:2010/5/2 14:46:00 [只看该作者]

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Tool changes go faster when the mold is stored near the machine and is clearly identified. Donnelly developed mold-storage “grandstands” near each of its 27 presses. Each mold is assigned a particular space.

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  发帖心情 Post By:2010/5/2 15:04:00 [只看该作者]

TIP No. 3 策略三
Follow a Checklist按照检查表检查

In the absence of a defined process for changeovers, molders may face long start-ups and other challenges that adversely affect market competitiveness. Establishing a checklist for the tools and steps for mold connection to the press is vital. Production supervisors at Donnelly use the checklist to make sure each scheduled changeover was completed and to evaluate how well it was done. Donnelly analyzes every changeover and looks for ways to improve the process. Even non-machine-related factors, such as material drying, can be reviewed closely for areas of improvement.

In fact, we go so far as to create an instruction manual for each of the molds we run. It includes checking the first and last parts in a job run for signs of warpage, flashing, mold wear, and other process maladies. We also have a checklist for the auxiliary equipment used, which is a part of the work order.

 

在更换模具时如果缺乏规定的流程,模塑商可能会面临长时间的启动和其它一些对市场竞争力不良的影响。对于把模具安装到注塑机的工具和步骤建立一个检查表是至关重要的。Donnelly公司使用检查表以确保每次模具更换都得到完成,并评价其完成的质量。Donnelly公司分析每次换模并寻找改进流程的方法。甚至每个非机器因素,如原料干燥,都可以密切研判,以找到改进的空间。事实上,我们工作做得很深入,给给个运行的模具都做了指导手册。这个手册包括检查我们做的第一个直到最后一个部件,以发现下述问题的迹象:翘曲、飞边、模具磨损和其它的工艺缺陷。我们还有一个附属设备检查表,它是工作流程的一部分。


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  发帖心情 Post By:2010/5/2 21:14:00 [只看该作者]

TIP No. 4 Commit to Training策略四 致力于培训

Sometimes mold set-ups are protracted simply because there are too few people in the shop qualified to execute a mold changeover. In even a small molding shop, it is not uncommon to have several machines due for mold set-ups at the same time. Yet many molders rely on just one or two specialists. That means presses may remain idle while specialists are bogged down during busy periods or difficult set-ups.

 

有时模具计划拖了后腿,是因为车间里没有多少合格的人来执行换模任务。在一个即使很小的模塑车间里,有几台注塑机同时接受换模安排,那也是也少见的。但是,许多模塑商仅仅依靠一、二个专家。那就意味着,当专家们忙得不可开交或者难于做出计划时,注塑机可能要闲置起来了。

 

This can be avoided by training press operators to do mold changeovers. Donnelly has trained 40% of its hourly personnel for this task. Not only can all changeovers be done in a timely fashion, but set-up times have also been reduced since press operators are able to pitch in and help in all phases of the process. Shift supervisors now create ad hoc changeover teams of certified molding operators on a daily basis, rather than having only one person or one crew perform them.

Donnelly also has a proven formula for executing changeovers: Always use two-person teams, regardless of press size. The team members have defined roles and work one on each side of the press. Over half the 60 people trained to perform mold changeovers at Donnelly are women.


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